Innovating to net zero: An executive’s guide to climate technology – The Stunning Grandeur of Soviet-Era Metros – Our future lives and livelihoods: Sustainable, and inclusive. and growing – Annie Leibovitz, the Un-Fashion Photographer

Again, this edition of TextileFuture’s Newsletter is offering you four different worthy reading items.

The first feature is entitled is entitled “Innovating to net zero: An executive’s guide to climate technology”. It is really an executive guide to climate technology, thus of the highest actuality,“, and it is based upon reputed authors of McKinsey Consultants.

The second item bears the title “The Stunning Grandeur of Soviet-Era Metros” and presents to you the splendour of the metros of that time. If you have never taken the metro in Russia, you will be intrigued to do that in the future, because these are simply beautiful and we offer you quite a few photographs as an evidence.

The third feature is entitled “Our future lives and livelihoods: Sustainable and inclusive and growing” by guest authors of McKinsey. It explains a path to follow in order to re-arrange our future lives and livelihoods in a sustainable, inclusive, and growing way. It is well written and is really worth the time to read.

Everybody – at least by name – knows Annie Leibovitz as photographer. She is interviewed by Patricia Morrisroe on the newest book “Wonderland”. The item was firstly published in the New York Times and is entitled “Annie Leibovitz, the Un-Fashion Photographer”. It is garnered with some outstanding photographs by Annie Leibovitz and Gillian Laub for the New York Times.

Therefore our selection for you matches exactly what you can expect from us, some food for thoughts, but at the same time also for your eyes. We hope you will agree!

Here starts the first feature:

Innovating to net zero: An executive’s guide to climate technology

By Tom Hellstern, Kimberly Henderson, Sean Kane, and Matt Rogers from McKinsey. Tom Hellstern is an associate partner in McKinsey’s Seattle office, Kimberly Henderson is a partner in the Washington, DC, office, Sean Kane is a partner in the Southern California office, and Matt Rogers is a senior partner emeritus and a senior adviser in the San Francisco office.

The authors wish to thank Joshua Katz, Alisha Kuzma, Gregory Santoni, and Bram Smeets for their contributions to this article.

Advanced technologies are critical to stopping climate change—and the drive to develop and scale them is accelerating. Here are five themes that could attract USD 2 trillion of annual investment by 2025.

New technologies represent a critical part of the world’s decarbonization tool kit—and the world does not yet have all the technologies that it would need to solve the net-zero equation by balancing sources and sinks of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. The good news: McKinsey research on Europe’s net-zero pathway suggests that climate technologies that are already mature could, if deployed widely, deliver about 60 % of the emissions abatement that will be needed to stabilise the climate by 2050. The challenge is that further abatement must come from climate technologies that aren’t quite ready, including 25 to 30 % from technologies that are demonstrated but not yet mature and another 10 to 15 % from those still in R&D.

This need for innovation makes the pace of decarbonization difficult to predict. When, for example, will clean hydrogen cost USD1 per kilogramme: in 2025 or 2050? The answer will affect the speed at which industries from aviation to steel can decarbonise. Similarly, unless manufacturers of utility-scale batteries can make them at low cost, power producers will have to keep running fossil fleets to cope with the intermittency of renewables. Uncertainty about the availability of financing for innovation limits capital formation and slows scale-up. Integrating most climate technologies into existing infrastructure, hardware, software, and operational systems will be complicated, too.

Charting cost reductions for climate technologies

Absent incentives, climate technologies must compete with high-emissions technologies based on cost, efficiency, performance, and other attributes unrelated to their environmental benefits. Of these, high cost can be a significant barrier to widespread uptake—but not a permanent barrier. If demand for climate technologies is sustained over time, then manufacturers can create production efficiencies that allow them to reduce costs (exhibit).

Yet there are reasons to be optimistic. Recent history suggests that researchers and businesses can deliver the necessary advances and cost reductions (see sidebar, “Charting cost reductions for climate technologies”). Over the past decade, the cost of some renewable-energy projects came down by almost 90 percent, as did the costs of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries, LED lighting, and other energy-efficient hardware. Capital is increasingly plentiful, evidenced by the revaluation of cleantech stocks that began in June 2020, and by the growth in investments earmarked for sustainability and environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) objectives. Governments are lending strong fiscal support to low-carbon innovation. Pledges from big companies not only to cut emissions but also to decarbonize operations and product lines—to buy only renewable fuel or make only EVs—give confidence to entrepreneurs and their backers. Talk of regulatory mandates lends weight to these demand signals.

And, again, the need for climate technology is vast—which creates large potential markets and investment opportunities. Our estimates suggest that next-generation technologies could attract USD 1.5 trillion to USD 2 trillion of capital investment per year by 2025. 1 To enter these markets and navigate them successfully, established companies, start-ups, and investors will need a nuanced and ever-evolving understanding of technical advances, customer demands and commitments, and policy environments. In this article, we lay out five areas with considerable promise, along with potential obstacles along the path to scale (exhibit):

  • electrifying transportation, buildings, and industry
  • launching the next green revolution in agriculture
  • remaking the power grid to supply clean electricity.
  • delivering on the promise of hydrogen
  • expanding carbon capture, use, and storage

Coal, oil, and gas have been the main fuels used to power buildings, industrial machines, and vehicles since the early 20th century. Getting to net-zero emissions will require electrifying most equipment and processes that now run on hydrocarbons and converting the electric-power system to renewable sources (see the next section). Many forms of electric gear, from EV batteries to heat pumps to industrial furnaces, remain expensive. Further innovation will be needed to reduce costs and increase uptake of the electric hardware that will drive a net-zero society.

Better EV batteries. Electrifying transportation requires cutting the cost of batteries, which can account for as much as half the cost of an EV. However, the lithium-ion batteries that are most common in EVs may never fall below the critical threshold of USD 100 per kilowatt-hour. To boost energy density and cut costs, battery chemistry will have to improve. Companies are working on anodes with high silicon content, which represent the next frontier. Beyond that, innovations in solid-state, gel, and foam electrolytes would turn ultra-high-capacity lithium metal anodes from a concept into a reality, and one that is safer than today’s battery technology.

Battery-control software. Hardware improvements aren’t the only route to better batteries. Software control systems can also help, and even make up for shortfalls in chemistry. They can shorten charging times: imagine recharging an EV with a 300-mile range in ten minutes or less, instead of one hour at a supercharger or overnight on most home systems. They can prolong battery lives enough to match the life of the vehicle. And they could give EVs added pickup or hauling or towing capacity.

Efficient building systems. Buildings account for about 7 % of global CO2 emissions. Cutting those emissions would require making buildings more energy efficient with technologies such as LED lighting, high-efficiency HVAC, and energy controls. But efficiency alone isn’t enough. Buildings, like vehicles, have to go electric. Using heat pumps to keep buildings warm, instead of traditional boilers and furnaces, could cut global CO2 emissions by 3 gigatonnes per year if implemented worldwide. Today’s models are 2.2 to 4.5 times more efficient than gas furnaces, and recent advances, such as multiple or variable-speed compressors, let heat pumps work in cold conditions that once caused problems. Heat pumps do remain expensive, so cost declines, especially for air-source heat pumps, would likely have to happen before they are used widely. 2 In addition, energy-reactive windows and those with embedded solar cells could enable buildings to generate all the power they need.

Industrial electrification. As prices of renewable electricity and electric equipment drop, industrial companies could lower costs and emissions by electrifying their operations. The opportunity appears large. Industrial sectors such as cement, chemicals, and steel together consume more energy than other sectors (such as electric power and transportation), and only 20 percent of that energy is electricity. What’s more, electrical equipment is less costly and more reliable for many industrial applications, though not all. Electric furnaces, for example, can make heat up to 350°C, but not the high heat of up to 1000°C that many industrial processes need. Innovation will be needed to address these gaps. There is also the question of how to finance industrial electrification. Replacing long-lived equipment early can mean writing it off, and industrial products tend to have tight profit margins, which can discourage companies from making big capital outlays. New financial mechanisms could help companies cover the up-front cost of electric equipment even with the long payback period.

Agriculture accounts for about 20 % of global GHG emissions. The most significant GHG from agriculture is methane, which has many times the warming power of CO2. Reducing methane emissions from agriculture (and other sources) would require major changes to how society farms, eats, manages supplies and waste, and stewards cropland and forests. Many of the changes would be enabled by climate technologies, some of which are relatively mature while others need further development.

Bringing these technologies to the more than two billion people who work in agriculture will be one of the most difficult tasks on any path to 1.5°C of warming, requiring cost reductions, assistance programs, and infrastructure (such as distributed clean energy). These developments would amount to a new green revolution, one with the potential to surpass the gains that were realized as efficient farming practices were applied widely in the 1960s. These are some of the technologies that could decarbonise agriculture.

Zero-emissions farm equipment. The largest amount of on-farm emissions abatement could be achieved by shifting from traditional fossil-fuel equipment and machinery—such as tractors, harvesters, and dryers—to their zero-emissions counterparts. The economic potential is significant: deployment of zero-emissions equipment could produce cost savings of USD 229 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e). Nevertheless, uptake of zero-emissions farm equipment and machinery is far behind that of EVs; most varieties are still in the proof-of-concept or prototype phases. Cost reductions and supportive financing would accelerate adoption.

Meat alternatives. Between one-quarter and one-third of global methane emissions are estimated to come from the digestive processes of cattle, sheep, and other ruminant animals. Those emissions will be difficult to abate unless consumers opt to change their diets. But some of the meat and dairy that people now eat could be healthfully, and cost-effectively, replaced with protein from crops such as legumes and pulses. This may require more land and different planting practices but could also reduce deforestation related to the clearing of land for pasture. Lab technology also points toward meat substitutes. Some are plant-based: Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods are two of the leading names in the field. Cultivated meats—those grown in bioreactors from animal cells—are also advancing. McKinsey research suggests that this could become a USD 25 billion global industry by 2030.

Methane inhibitors. Companies are developing feed supplements and substitutes that inhibit methane production by altering an animal’s digestive processes. Trials have shown that these can reduce methane production by 30 to 50 %. Propionate precursors—a class of free acids or salts, such as sodium acrylate or sodium fumarate—have been shown to inhibit methane emissions from cattle without affecting animals’ growth, and one of these has entered the EU approval process.

Anaerobic manure processing. Manure from cattle and hogs can release significant amounts of methane. Processing manure in anaerobic digesters can cut emissions and also generate biogas, a renewable form of natural gas that can be used on farms, sold to the grid, or fed into production of “gold hydrogen.” Such digesters are now used, though not widely, to control odor and pathogens. But companies are partnering with agriculture and landfill sites to produce biogas for various purposes, such as making compressed natural gas, which counts as a transport fuel under California’s low-carbon fuel standard.

Bioengineering. Bioengineering advances agricultural productivity and carbon sequestration and thereby lowers the sector’s emissions. Promising technologies include editing of plant genes to promote disease resistance and manage the soil microbiome.

Almost everywhere, power grids are old, inefficient, unreliable—and carbon-intensive. They are nowhere near ready to handle the doubling of electricity demand that could take place by 2050 as electrification happens, let alone prevent a commensurate increase in carbon emissions. Modernising and decarbonising the grid involves three main tasks. One is speeding the installation of renewable-generation capacity; to achieve a 1.5°C pathway, we estimate that the global installation rate would need to increase from 3 gigawatts per week to 15 to 18 gigawatts. Another task is adding energy-storage capacity to manage the intermittency of solar and wind. Last is upgrading the transmission and distribution network to accommodate more front-of-the-meter and behind-the-meter assets.

Few utilities are known as risk takers. For the most part, they are set up—and required by regulators—to deploy proven, mature technologies. These tendencies present limitations. But if innovators and grid operators work together (for example, on accelerating the scale-up of long-duration storage) and regulators send helpful signals (for example, by defining mechanisms to reward providers of battery storage and other services that help deal with intermittency), then the following technologies could help create a zero-carbon grid.

Long-duration storage. Even with falling solar and wind costs, as well as cheaper lithium-ion batteries, the intermittency of renewables makes these technologies impractical as the sole source of grid power. A solution is long-duration energy storage, which can store enough power to supply a network for two weeks or more (a typical period of limited renewable generation in many markets). In comparison, lithium-ion batteries can provide backup power cost-effectively for only four hours. At a levelized cost 3 of less than USD 20 per kilowatt-hour, long-duration storage would make 100 % renewable systems cost-competitive in US states with ample wind and solar resources. Storage costs of USD 150 per kilowatt-hour would allow very high wind and solar penetration, provided that power systems also include strong demand-side management, backup gas turbines, or more integration of regional transmission networks. 4 Multiple storage technologies are emerging, including power-to-gas, flow batteries, and compressed or liquefied air. Big and small companies are active in this market, and start-ups are pioneering more advanced options such as mechanical systems and modular pumped hydro.

Advanced controls. Today, grid utilization tends to average below 50 % because the grid is built for times of peak demand and its performance worsens in extreme heat or cold. As more renewables and storage systems are deployed at the grid edge, in homes and commercial sites, they will make power grids more complicated to operate. Resilience, flexibility, safety, and efficiency can be improved with technologies such as solid-state transformers, advanced flexible AC controllers that allow more controlled grid flow, and high-voltage DC technologies for data centres.

Software and communications. Traditional electrical grids use idling power plants to maintain grid balance. These so-called spinning reserves are expensive to run but can respond quickly when demand fluctuates. Modern electric grids would rely on ultrafast communications to maintain grid balance by managing every device on the network. Software-defined inertial substitution (to maintain grid balance when there are fewer spinning reserves), advanced “volt-var” management (to maintain proper voltage over long transmission lines or in highly congested urban markets), and network-wide instrumentation for condition monitoring and fault isolation would help utilities spot issues and prevent interruptions. Distributed energy-management software can coordinate all these elements. Digitized grids will require better cybersecurity protection.

Vehicle-to-grid integration. As more drivers switch to EVs, the big batteries in their driveways and garages could be hooked up to the grid to provide energy-storage capacity. One million typical EVs would offer about 75 gigawatts of storage, hundreds of times more than today’s single biggest utility-scale storage facility provides. Residential backup batteries add more. Accomplishing this integration requires technologies such as inverters that connect rooftop solar, wall batteries, EV batteries, and the grid, as well as fast chargers that buffer the grid from demand spikes while keeping EV batteries full.

Building-to-grid integration. As buildings’ energy controls improve, the buildings can be dispatched to the grid—that is, used to supply power—in ways that improve system performance. Buildings with energy storage or cogeneration could feed power onto the grid when called for, producing income for their owners. And if a utility could reduce power demand slightly in a central business district by signaling buildings to turn down lights, it could cope with demand spikes less expensively than by turning on a gas peaker plant.

Next-generation nuclear. Nuclear energy has an uneven history: from the 1950s’ promise of “too cheap to meter” energy to construction-cost overruns in the 1970s to post-Fukushima fears. Now, the push to decarbonize power has lent new appeal to nuclear generation, which is emissions-free. Emerging technologies include the sodium-cooled, molten salt, and helium-cooled reactors known as “GenIV”; small, sealed, modular, factory-built reactors; and fusion energy, an area where new start-ups are pushing costs down and timelines forward to prototype devices in the mid-2020s, ahead of government-backed research programs.

High-efficiency materials. Scientific advances could produce materials for a wide range of clean-energy applications. Solar cells made with perovskites, a special type of crystal, could outperform regular silicon solar cells—and cost less to make. Graphene, a single-atom-thick sheet of carbon, could revolutionize batteries (by enhancing conductivity and storage capacity), solar cells (by offering superior conductivity contacts with lower light blockage), and high-efficiency transmission lines to carry power from remote but productive renewable-generation sites.

Hydrogen could play a significant role in decarbonisation, as a clean-energy carrier or fuel ingredient with many applications. High-energy density and zero-carbon combustion make hydrogen well suited to address the 30 percent of GHG emissions—across sectors as diverse as aviation and shipping, industry, buildings, and road transport—that would be hard to abate with electricity alone. Hydrogen could ultimately satisfy 15 to 20 % of energy demand.

After a push in the early 2000s, innovation in hydrogen technologies stalled. Now it has new momentum. The Hydrogen Council identified 131 large-scale hydrogen projects announced between February and July 2021, bringing the total to more than 350. Direct investment in these projects, which would produce 11 million tonnes of hydrogen annually, is expected to top USD 130 billion. 5

Hydrogen has a long way to go to fulfill its potential. An entire infrastructure of pipes and storage facilities would have to be built, at great expense. Europe is responding with a plan, the EU Hydrogen Backbone, 6 to link low-cost supply centers with European demand centers. Other technologies integral to the hydrogen economy include the following.

Low-cost production. If hydrogen could be made for less than $2 per kilogram in the European Union or USD 1 per kilogramme in parts of the United States by 2030, major end uses would become economically viable. One production process is the electrolysis of water, whereby electricity is used to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms. If electrolyzers run on renewable electricity, the resulting “green hydrogen” is carbon-free. (By comparison, “blue” hydrogen, made from natural gas, is carbon-intensive.) Estimates suggest that electrolyser costs could fall 60 to 80 % over the next decade. 7

Road-transport fuel. Hydrogen’s higher energy density makes hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) suitable for long-haul or heavy road transport. For FCEVs to be adopted widely, they would need to become less expensive, and fueling stations would need to be built.

Ammonia production. This is one of the most promising near-term uses for low-carbon hydrogen. Green ammonia, made with green hydrogen, should be the first variety to match the cost of conventional ammonia production. Hydrogen is also relatively straightforward to integrate in ammonia production, so less supporting infrastructure is required. And ammonia can be used as a fuel or as a “vector” for transporting hydrogen.

Steel production. The steel sector is one of the largest industrial emitters, producing about 7 to 9 % of global emissions. The conventional blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace route for steel production emits approximately 1.8 tonnes of carbon per tonne of steel. But using green hydrogen to power the direct reduction of iron as a feedstock for electric arc furnaces (which could also be powered by renewables) is one route to zero-carbon steel. Major steel producers in Europe are now piloting steel production with hydrogen.

Aviation fuel. As the travel industry recovers from the COVID-19 pandemic, air travel is expected to produce 3 % of global carbon emissions. These emissions will be hard to abate until planes are made to fly on fuels other than petroleum-based jet fuel. The best near-term alternative, according to the Clean Skies for Tomorrow Coalition, may be sustainable aviation fuels made from renewable feedstocks such as agricultural biomass. Within the next decade, hydrogen could provide electric power for smaller aircraft equipped with fuel cells. Eventually, hydrogen could be used for combustion in larger planes.

Carbon capture, use, and storage (CCUS) is necessary to decarbonize hard-to-abate sectors and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere (resulting in “negative emissions”). Presently, use of CCUS is minimal. Costs remain prohibitively high—typically USD 50 to USD 100 per tonne of CO2 (tCO2)—and CCUS equipment consumes a lot of energy. Rollout of CCUS has generally stalled at second- or third-of-a-kind commercial-scale installations at coal or gas power plants, steel plants, and refineries.

Moreover, innovation has been slow. Many existing CCUS plants employ 30-year-old solvent-based technologies for postcombustion carbon capture. But new technologies are emerging. Further R&D would be needed to reduce costs, and additional incentives will likely be required to make CCUS financially viable at commercial scale. But if the full cost of CCUS were to fall below USD 50/tCO2, it would make many applications economical. Here are some CCUS technologies that could help.

Pre- and postcombustion capture technologies. Precombustion technologies such as oxyfuel combustion represent promising ways to affordably capture CO2 from point sources since they increase the concentration of CO2 in flue gases. Development of new postcombustion technologies, such as second-generation solvent formulations, sorbents, and membranes, is helping bring down the cost of capture. Companies, governments, philanthropy, venture-capital, and growth-equity firms have all helped finance improvements in capture technology.

Direct air capture (DAC). Withdrawing CO2 from ambient air is difficult because air has, at most, one one-hundredth of the CO2 concentration found in flue gases from industrial point sources. Nevertheless, DAC offers a way of removing CO2 from the atmosphere—and the world is likely to need many different sources of negative emissions to achieve a 1.5°C pathway. To that end, several companies are investing in DAC, with the goal of achieving capture costs of USD 100/tCO2 to USD 150/tCO2 by 2030, 60 to 80 % less than today’s pilot projects. Low-cost DAC, coupled with low-cost hydrogen, could enable production of carbon-neutral e-fuels in the near to medium term.

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Many fossil-powered plants are nowhere near the end of their useful lives. Taking plants offline before they are due would burden utilities with stranded assets. But the value of these assets could be preserved by converting them to run on biomass, a renewable fuel. Adding CCS equipment to a bioenergy plant lets it produce negative emissions: biomass sequesters CO2 as it grows, and when that biomass is burned, the CCS system keeps the CO2 from entering the atmosphere.

Biochar. Biochar is a stable, charcoal-like material made by processing waste biomass such as crop residues through pyrolysis or gasification.

Adding biochar to soil can improve soil health and agricultural productivity, opening the door for use in large-scale farming. This practice could sequester nearly 2 gigatons of CO2 per year by 2050. Adoption rates will depend on the results of commercial-scale experiments over the next decade.

CO2-enriched concrete. Concrete has two main components: cement, which is the “glue” that holds concrete together; and aggregate, such as sand or crushed stone, which gives concrete most of its mass. Both have heavy carbon footprints, but companies are working on solutions that would sequester CO2 in concrete itself. Technologies for adding CO2 as an ingredient in cement could reduce emissions by up to 70 % and make cement stronger. Emerging processes might combine captured CO2 with industrial-waste products such as fly ash, steel slag, and remediated cement to make artificial “rocks” for use in place of natural aggregate.

These climate technologies could contribute to solving the net-zero equation while creating growth potential for sectors and geographies. At present, the technologies exhibit varying levels of maturity, performance, market demand, and regulatory support. To bring them to commercial, climate-stabilising scale would require companies, financial institutions, and governments to cooperate on investment and research programs as well as efforts to integrate technologies with existing industrial systems. This challenge is formidable, but the moment to devote creativity, capital, and conviction to addressing it is now.

This article was edited by Josh Rosenfield, an executive editor in the New York office.

www.mckinsey.com

Now follows the second item:

The Stunning Grandeur of Soviet-Era Metros

Between 2014 and 2020, Frank Herfort visited more than 770 metro stations in 19 cities, creating a remarkable archive of architectural and artistic splendor.

Photographs and Text by Frank Herfort from the New York Times.

At the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, with travel restrictions in place worldwide, we launched a new series — The World Through a Lens — in which photojournalists help transport you, virtually, to some of our planet’s most compelling places. This week, Frank Herfort shares a collection of images from across the former Soviet Union.

It was a cold day in December 2014, and I was waiting for the train at Shchukinskaya, a station on the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line of the Moscow Metro.

Though the subway trains in Moscow are celebrated for their punctuality, this particular train was running late, giving me longer than usual to gaze at the scenery around me.

There, in a utilitarian station not typically celebrated for its beauty, I noticed the uniformly sculpted aluminum panels along the track. Their patterning was mesmerizing. I snapped a few quick photographs.

A moment later, my train arrived. I boarded a car along with the rest of the crowd and departed the station.

Botanicheskaya, in Yekaterinburg, Russia.Credit…Frank Herfort/INSTITUT

My experience at Shchukinskaya was a fleeting and seemingly insignificant event, and yet it launched me on a project that I had been considering for years — one that would occupy more than half a decade of my professional life.

Between 2014 and 2020, I photographed all of the existing Soviet-era metros, ultimately visiting more than 770 stations in 19 cities. My goal was to create as close to a full archive of the metros as I possibly could.

It was also drawn to record countless details: lamps, benches, tiles, ornaments, mosaics, staircases, elevators and other handmade artworks of marble or wood. wasn’t just the individual stations that captured my imagination — though many are undeniably stunning in their own right. Rather, it was the entire underground system, both in Moscow and extending out to other former Soviet cities, that inspired me: the mystique, the immensity, the pervading sense of colossal authority

Between 2014 and 2020, I photographed all of the existing Soviet-era metros, ultimately visiting more than 770 stations in 19 cities. My goal was to create as close to a full archive of the metros as I possibly could.

It wasn’t just the individual stations that captured my imagination — though many are undeniably stunning in their own right. Rather, it was the entire underground system, both in Moscow and extending out to other former Soviet cities, that inspired me: the mystique, the immensity, the pervading sense of colossal authority.

I was also drawn to record countless details: lamps, benches, tiles, ornaments, mosaics, staircases, elevators and other handmade artworks of marble or wood.

For a long time the project seemed impossibly daunting. The number of stations felt endless, each full of transecting passengers and decorative features.

The Moscow Metro alone, which opened in 1935 and serves as a propagandistic model of Soviet might, has more than 200 stations and spans hundreds of miles.

And yet the beauty and grandeur of the stations propelled me ever onward — to visit the next, and the next, and the next.

Capturing many of the stations devoid of passengers imbued the photographs with a sense of timelessness. But doing so wasn’t easy; it meant that most of these pictures had to be taken either before 6 a.m. or after 11 p.m.

Restrictions on photography, once commonplace in Russia and throughout the former Soviet Union, have changed dramatically, even in the last decade. (Authorities in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, finally lifted the ban on photography in its metro stations in 2018, for example.)

Still, metro authorities weren’t always pleased with my presence. More than 50 times, inside various stations, I was told that photography was not permitted. Once, in Tashkent, I was forced to hand over my camera’s memory card.

Often the project felt like a game of cat and mouse. At certain moments I felt like a criminal, despite the fact that my only intentions were to capture the stations’ beauty.

After photographing Moscow’s stations, I moved on to St. Petersburg, whose metro — its construction long delayed by the brutal siege of Leningrad — opened in 1955.

From there I began venturing farther afield — to Ukraine, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Uzbekistan. Eventually I also visited a handful of cities whose metro systems, while not formally attributed to the Soviet Union, were either built or substantially altered during the Soviet era, or even partially built by Soviet architects and engineers. These included the metro stations in Bucharest, Budapest and Prague.

Many couldn’t understand why a seemingly tedious project centered on such common spaces would be interesting for me. These stations, after all, were places that most commuters passed through every day — by necessity more than choice.

But sometimes a passer-by, seeing me see a station they’ve seen a thousand times, would notice something anew, something I’d aimed my camera at: a beautiful ceiling, a carved handrail, an ornately decorative lamp. And then, I knew, they understood.

Frank Herfort is a documentary and architectural photographer based in Moscow and Berlin. His book, “CCCP Underground,” will be published in the coming months. You can follow his work on Instagram.

www.nytimes.com

Here is the third item for you:

Our future lives and livelihoods: Sustainable and inclusive and growing

By guest authors Bob Sternfels, Tracy Francis, Anu Madgavkar, and Sven Smit from McKinsey. The authors wish to thank Peter Gumbel and Daniel Pacthod for their contributions to this article. This is the first in a series of articles devoted to sustainable and inclusive growth.

As the world economy starts to emerge from the COVID-19 crisis, the time will soon come for leaders to look beyond safeguarding lives and livelihoods and to set their sights on a more profound challenge: bettering them. This societal challenge might be ten times as big as the pandemic and last ten times as long. The three goals we have in mind—growth, sustainability, and inclusion—buttress one another yet don’t always pull in the same direction; we see powerful reinforcing as well as counteracting loops among them (exhibit). And so, while many might broadly agree on the aspiration, there’s a very tough question lurking in the background: How do we go about building a future that delivers growth and sustainability and inclusion?

Full disclosure: we’re not going to offer an answer. Instead, we propose a way for changemakers in business, government, and society to explore the problem, a mental model that might offer the best chance to reach the answer. It starts with this: we believe the ands are crucial and that they are in fact the means to the end. The three elements of growth, sustainability, and inclusion are deeply connected and cannot be viewed as trade-offs. Consider this: without growth, how could we achieve prosperity and well-being or pay for the transitions needed to make the economy more sustainable and inclusive? Without sustainability, how could we fashion growth for the current generation and the ones to follow? Without inclusion—an opportunity for productive work and a satisfying life for all citizens—how could we ensure the demand needed to propel growth? Indeed, getting to and—moving to a world in which growth and sustainability and inclusion form a powerful dynamic—is the imperative for the next era of business.

But before we get to the challenge of and, let’s face facts: hastening growth, sustainability, and inclusion are incredibly difficult challenges in their own right. Fortunately, thinkers, strategists, activists, and many others around the world—dreamers and doers—are working on it. We are too. In our view, the world will need to confront three problems simultaneously:

  • Growth is elusive. In the mature G-7 economies, GDP growth has halved to 1 percent per year on average since the 2008 global financial crisis. 1 It’s the same story in emerging economies: despite some exceptions, such as China and India, growth in emerging economies overall has been lower recently than in the early 2000s.
  • Poverty is still endemic, despite the progress made. More than 600 million people still lived in extreme poverty as of 2017. And in 2020, another 100 million or so people joined them as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This will persist unless today’s leaders create sufficient jobs with decent wages, as well as a robust social contract that ensures access to affordable housing, healthcare, and energy for the bottom one to three quintiles of the population, depending on the country. Meanwhile, a new threat to personal income is mounting: the rise of technology-driven changes in the ways we work, which the pandemic has accelerated. We estimate that more than 100 million people will need to make occupational transitions by 2030 in a set of eight advanced and emerging economies.
  • Ensuring a sustainable future will require massive investment. For example, the International Energy Agency estimates that net-zero emissions might require investments of almost $5 trillion each year by 2030, and $4.5 trillion per year by 2050. 2 The annual bill equates to about half of global corporate profits in 2019, or about one and a half times the annual increase in public debt over the preceding 15 years. Additional investments needed for decarbonisation in agriculture, transportation, and other sectors could nearly double the bill. While many of these investments would produce a return, their financing or pricing is not yet set up.

And that’s just the start: as we explain in this article, even if the global economy were to get these three goals notionally right, there are contingencies among them that, if left unresolved, could wreck any progress made.

Here, we seek to frame the debate about achieving sustainable, inclusive growth in a clear-eyed way, laying out the aspiration but also the toughest problems that need to be solved to achieve this growth, with some illustrations as to their size. Good strategy should always start with asking the right questions. For today’s leaders, the questions are vast and profound—and soluble.

The virtuous cycle starts with growth

What do we mean by sustainable, inclusive growth? There are many ideas associated with these words. We aim for broad rather than narrow interpretations:

  • In growth, we include the ambition of increased prosperity and well-being, including economic-profit growth for companies, GDP growth for nations—as well as measures such as life satisfaction for citizens—derived in part from dignity of work (while recognizing that measurable definitions of well-being are still evolving).
  • In inclusion, we consider equality of opportunity and broad-based progress of outcomes for all—especially sufficiency of living standards—and the narrowing of inequalities among genders, ages, ethnicities, family backgrounds, and places of residence.
  • In sustainability, we aim for environmental resilience, which starts with reducing climate risk but also includes much broader preservation of natural capital as well as intergenerational fairness, all considered in terms of economic and societal costs and benefits.

These three goals are daunting. Fortunately, they can strengthen and reinforce one another:

  • Growth supports inclusion, part 1: Creating meaningful jobs and lifting incomes. High-growth emerging economies have delivered powerful proof that growth supports inclusion, by reducing the global share of those living in extreme poverty by two-thirds—to less than 10 percent of the world’s population—and by welcoming hundreds of millions to the middle class. This applies in advanced economies too: from the early 1990s to 2005, before the global financial crisis, GDP per capita rose by 2 to 4 % per year and real median household market incomes also rose.
  • Growth supports inclusion, part 2: Correcting labor-market inadequacies. In growing economies, government transfers and tax policies can help support incomes for large swaths of the population. Research from the McKinsey Global Institute found that real market incomes were flat or fell for just 20 to 25 % of households, after taxes and transfers; before these transfers, some 60 to 70 percent of households saw incomes decline. During the pandemic, while US median household income dropped 2.9 % in 2020, the share of people living in poverty declined, after accounting for government aid. 3
  • Growth enables sustainability by encouraging investment. Economic growth strengthens consumer confidence, spending, and demand, all vital elements of a healthy investment climate—which the energy transition is going to need. And as our research on outperforming emerging economies has shown, the capital deepening that results from greater investment spurs productivity and, with it, wages and growth.
  • Greater inclusion and sustainability promote growth through new demand and investment opportunities. Sustainability drives new business opportunities in domains such as clean technologies. India, for example, could more than quadruple its renewable-energy capacity by 2030; we estimate that this could generate some $90 billion in GDP and support about two million jobs in 2030. And inclusion has similarly powerful effects on growth. We estimate that more inclusive access to healthcare could add 0.4 percent to the world’s GDP growth by 2040. More broadly, inclusion spurs demand, as a burgeoning middle class is a key driver of consumption. Africa has about 200 million young people of working age and will have close to a billion by 2050. Youth training and development, especially of digital skills, can vault this group into the middle class—and help close skill gaps in the rest of the world.
  • Sustainability reinforces both inclusion and growth through the ‘energy prize.’ The energy transition will yield a prize of two cross-cutting benefits: lower costs that make energy more accessible, and more productive lives. Over the past ten years, the cost of electricity from renewables fell about 50 to 85 percent. 4 Renewables are now gaining ground in developing economies. In sub-Saharan Africa, a region with the lowest energy-access rate in the world, decentralized renewable solutions such as rooftop solar are taking root. 5 Lower emissions and reduced air pollution can improve health and allow more people to participate productively in the economy. History has some instructive lessons: after passage of the Clean Air Act in the United States, in 1970, reduced pollution increased the labor-force participation rate for affected individuals and had a positive long-run impact on wages. 6

Squaring the circle

If only each element of the circle of sustainable, inclusive growth created purely positive reinforcements to the others, the way forward would be clear. But the reality is that sustainability, inclusion, and growth also counteract. Squaring this circle means combating three sets of potential counterforces, which could be just as powerful as the reinforcing loops.

Growth’s counteractions

Growth imposes two major challenges. First is the persistent rise in inequality, which could worsen with growth. Already, 70 percent of the global population live in countries where inequality is mounting. Second is rising resource consumption and emissions.

  • Growth affects inclusion through skill-biased inequality—and its magnitude is set to rise with trends accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Growth in the knowledge-based economy has stoked demand for higher-level cognitive, technological, and socioemotional skills— a demand not matched by the supply of workers with such skills. As a result, a skill-biased inequality in many countries has sprung up. In the United States, for example, wages for middle-income jobs grew by 1.1 percent between 2000 and 2018, whereas wages for high-pay and low-pay workers grew much faster, at 7.3 and 5.3 percent, respectively. As the pandemic accelerates digitization and automation, almost all growth in labor demand could occur in high-wage occupations. The number of workers who would need to make occupational transitions by 2030 in order to stay employed would increase by up to 25 percent, including—for the first time—many low-wage workers.
  • Growth counteracts sustainability through greater resource consumption. The global “material footprint”—that is, the raw materials used to make the goods that we consume—rises in correlation with GDP growth. 7 As growth expands in emerging countries, the problem of an increasing global material footprint could get worse. According to the World Bank, about 10 percent of the world’s people still have no access to electricity, and 2.6 billion people lack access to clean cooking solutions. 8 If increased demand from a globally expanding consuming class is not accompanied by improvements in resource efficiency, this will put an even heavier burden on the planet.

Sustainability’s counteractions

Trillions in capital are needed for energy investment to achieve the goal of net-zero emissions by 2050. If consumers and businesses shoulder the burden, near-term growth and inclusion could suffer, even though the longer-term benefits are clear. If costs are passed on to consumers, energy prices could rise well before the gains are eventually reaped, and if costs are passed on to businesses, the profitability of whole sectors could suffer.

This dynamic sets up the potential for two counteractions: uneven distribution of impact and a challenge to the goal of inclusion.

  • The energy transition could affect some countries and sectors severely. Oil- and natural-gas-producing economies could see their annual per capita income from these products fall by about 75 percent by the 2030s, according to the International Energy Agency. 9 Lower-income countries will be disproportionately exposed because they have a higher share of emissions-intensive sectors and will also need to make higher investments relative to their GDP. Those sectors include power, automotive, construction, and others, all of which will be intensely affected, as will supply chains.
  • Lower-income households are disproportionately vulnerable. In Europe, recent rises in energy prices—the vanguard of the energy transition—are falling heavily on low-income households, prompting some governments, including in Spain, to provide subsidies. 10 And while the transition could lead to some 18 million more jobs in the green economy, according to International Labour Organization estimates, many people, especially lower-income workers, will need to retrain to qualify for these new jobs. 11

Inclusion’s potential counteractions

The positive spillovers of inclusion are indisputable and well documented: greater workforce participation, higher creativity, more capital allocated to children’s needs. However, poorly conceived measures to boost inclusion can have unintended negative consequences that can include distorted product markets, reduced investment, or faster environmental depletion. For example, in developing economies, free or highly subsidized nonvolumetric pricing of electricity used to pump water can lead to groundwater depletion. 12 Efforts to achieve equality can also backfire if they become a box-ticking exercise, or a quota-driven program, which may fail to address the root causes of inequality. As a result, the goal of achieving a fairer workplace or society may not be achieved, and outcomes may even worsen for certain groups.

Starting here, starting now: A proposal

Achieving a future that is sustainable and inclusive and growing is so compelling an idea that today’s leaders owe it to future generations to act immediately. Such a feat cannot be left to enlightened self-interest: if it were that easy, the problem would already have been solved. We see six key challenges that will need to be tackled—with success or failure hinging on how effectively these challenges are met.

  1. How to unlock growth supported by higher productivity of an additional 1.0 to 1.5 percentage points of GDP per year, at a global scale with the same urgency that we have seen during the COVID-19 pandemic?
  2. How to reduce the transition costs of decarbonization by, say, $500 billion to $1 trillion of the $5 trillion in required spending per year through technological innovation and smart-portfolio choices?
  3. How to finance and smooth the cost of the energy transition, country by country and sector by sector, in a way that won’t stifle growth?
  4. How to reskill and re-employ more than 100 million workers who are in stagnating or shrinking occupations as a result of technological change, including the many millions who will likely be displaced by energy transitions?
  5. How to strengthen the social contract by achieving basic needs for median households, including affordable housing, healthcare, and energy—needs that are unmet for many of these families in both advanced and developing countries—in a way that attracts private-sector innovation and supply?
  6. How to support the most vulnerable population segments—for example, the poorest one-fifth of the global population—that struggle with access and affordability in areas such as nutrition, water, energy, education, and financial capital?

Answering these six questions would negate the counterforces mentioned earlier and allow the virtuous cycle to flow unimpeded. But important obstacles, linked to incentives, stand in the way. First is what Mark Carney has called “the tragedy of horizons”: today’s leaders collectively need to take action today for returns that will accrue only over time. 13 Second is the tragedy of the commons: for collective action, especially on environmental sustainability, all invested parties must look past their parochial interests and fight for the common good.

No stakeholder can solve all these problems on their own. A clear road map, with buy-in from others, is paramount, as is a framework of incentives that balance short- and long-term horizons and interests across value-chain elements, economic sectors, countries, and regions. As in the case of the pandemic, tackling these challenges successfully will require multiple experiments, unprecedented speed in scaling successful ones, and broad participation across actors.

Governments will need to orchestrate a resilient transition—to manage risks, smooth costs, and avoid cascading crises in response to actions taken. On the business side, more companies and CEOs will need to enter the arena, to engage deeply in the design of policies, and to contribute their market knowledge. They will need to be open and realistic about the challenges, while also setting ambitious goals to create positive impact for their customers, workforces, societies, and the environment. Their capacity for innovation can and must be harnessed to shift the frontier of what’s possible and to help achieve what may seem unachievable. If companies don’t engage well and honestly, younger generations of workers will hold them accountable.

When it comes to achieving sustainable, inclusive growth, it is crucial first to fully recognize both the reinforcing as well as the counteracting loops. Then the conversation must move from agreeing on the targets—for who would not agree to such a tantalising vision—to understanding how to solve the tough problems that stand in the way.

For our part, we have put our hypotheses on those problems at the top of our research agenda and look to learn even more from the leaders of the global organizations we work with who are “making a dent in the universe” through sustainable, inclusive growth. We hope that the ways in which we’ve sketched out the forces and counterforces here contributes to our collective understanding. With that, it may be possible to start to move toward a sustainable and inclusive and growing global economy.

If we don’t focus on the and, we won’t achieve the end.

This article was edited by Mark Staples, an executive editor in the New York office.

www.mckinsey.com

That is the latest of Annie Leibovitz, and of one who states “Fashion wasn’t anything I wanted to be involved in”:

Annie Leibovitz, the Un-Fashion Photographer

“Fashion wasn’t anything I wanted to be involved with,” she says. Yet the visually arresting images in “Wonderland,” her new book and collection, may be her strongest work.

By guest author Patricia Morrisroe. Patricia Morrisroe is the author of “Mapplethorpe: A Biography” and “The Woman in the Moonlight,” a novel.

All captions courtesy by the New York Times

Annie Leibovitz would like to make one thing clear upfront: She is not a fashion photographer. Given that her new book, “Wonderland (Phaidon) is an anthology of fashion images shot mainly for Vogue,that’s curious.

But since the book, which arrives on Nov. 17, was built on Lewis Carroll’s “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,” perhaps it’s not so curious after all. As Alice confronts a cast of bewildering characters, she asks, “Who in the world am I?” Leibovitz, through fashion, poses the same question.

“I’ve grown doing work in this genre,” she said, “but it didn’t go along with my perception about myself and my work. I come from a place where I want things to really matter.”

“Ambivalence and irony are in the book,” she told me later.

As a student at the San Francisco Art Institute, Leibovitz was inspired by the gritty, spontaneous photography of Robert Frank and Henri Cartier-Bresson. Though she admired the fashion work of Richard Avedon, Helmut Newton and Irving Penn, she had no desire to emulate them. “I thought fashion was silly,” she said.

We met at Studio 525 in Chelsea, where Hauser & Wirth was holding a five-day “Wonderland” pop-up show during Fashion Week in September. (The Southampton outpost of the gallery will be showing some of the same photographs from Nov. 6 through Dec. 23.)

Four gigantic screens projected a selection of Leibovitz’s work, from a pregnant Melania Trump in a gold lamé bikini, to Lady Gaga in Valentino haute couture. Leibovitz, who is 72, was moving gingerly on an aching hip that badly needs replacement surgery, pushing herself the way she did two months earlier when she shot puffers, parkas and jackets near an active volcano in Iceland.

She was dressed in her typical uniform of black pants and matching shirt. That morning she’d asked one of her teenage daughters if she should wear a 20-year-old tattered blue shirt but was promptly told, “Wear the black one.”

“I’m just a creature of comfort,” she said. “I don’t imagine anyone is looking at me.”

Leibovitz is one of the top portrait photographers in the world, but I’ve long been a fan of her fashion photography — in many ways, I think it’s her strongest work. For most people, “Wonderland” will be their first exposure to Leibovitz’s talent in this area.

The 341 images in the book bear the hallmarks of the Leibovitz style — masterly use of color, theatrical staging, artful interplay between artificial and natural light — but the best of them live up to the book’s title. They are enchanting, wrapped in a visual narrative that showcases her gifts as a powerful storyteller.

“When one typically does a fashion shoot the goal is to illustrate the clothes,” explained Phyllis Posnick, Vogue’s contributing editor and a frequent Leibovitz collaborator. “Annie ‘dresses’ the picture.”

When I complimented Leibovitz on the book, she replied, “I’ll believe that as far as I can throw you. I’ve been around the block too long.”

Fifty years, in fact, starting as a photojournalist at Rolling Stone. She captured some of the most defining moments of the era, from President Nixon’s ignoble exit from the White House, to a naked John Lennon curled up in a fetal position around Yoko Ono. At Vanity Fair, she became known for her quirky, conceptual portraits of boldface names, including a nude, seven-months pregnant Demi Moore.

Then, in 1993, the writer Susan Sontag, Leibovitz’s companion, encouraged her to deepen her work by documenting the conflict in Sarajevo. But in 1998, Vogue’s editor in chief, Anna Wintour, now Condé Nast’s global editorial director, approached her about working for the magazine. A year later, she was sent to Paris during the couture shows to shoot a photo essay with its fashion editor, Grace Coddington. The story featured Kate Moss and Sean Combs, then known as Puff Daddy.

Leibovitz, who had never attended a fashion show before, was “in awe,” she said of the artistry on display. “It was like performance art.” The experience gave her a greater appreciation of fashion. “But I could never be a bona fide fashion photographer,” she added, explaining that she thinks of herself as a “conceptual artist using photography.”

James Danziger, whose gallery represented Leibovitz for over a decade, was the first to show her fashion images in 2006. “It’s likely that historically these images, which are great fashion photographs, will best stand the test of time,” he said. “This is the way it is in photography. Most celebrities are forgotten but fashion lasts.”

Leibovitz continued at Vogue for the next 23 years, creating a substantial body of work but thought it was “too soft” for a book. Then Covid-19 happened, and she found herself quarantined with her three daughters at her 200-acre farm in Rhinebeck, N. Y. She’s owned the property for 25 years; it’s where her large family gathers — she’s one of six children — and where Sontag often used to write.

In lockdown with her daughters for nearly a year, she was grateful for the time together. Two of her most fanciful photo essays in the book, “Alice in Wonderland” and “The Wizard of Oz,” were shot when her daughters were young — the oldest is now 20, the twins 16. “At the time I was reading fairy tales to them, so I was really living in that world,” she said.

The book also reawakened memories of Sontag. Leibovitz reminisced about the time Sontag read “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland” to her. “We had blankets under a tree,” she said. “It was such a beautiful day, and Susan had such a wonderful voice.”

Leibovitz shot the “Alice” pictures with Coddington in 2003, during Condé Nast’s free-spending days, when no one blinked an eye about sending a crew of 30 to 40 people to a chateau in northern France. “When you look at each picture and how much time it took, it’s really mind-boggling,” Coddington said.

The photographs were based on John Tenniel’s original illustrations in the Carroll book, including one of Alice squeezed inside the White Rabbit’s house. The set designer produced a replica, scaling it to the model Natalia Vodianova’s proportions. “The house was really incredible, with a little table and chairs,” Coddington said. “But Annie thought the windows were wrong, so the designer had to rebuild the whole thing.”

Fashion designers were cast as characters in the book, among them John Galliano as the Queen of Hearts, Tom Ford as the White Rabbit and Marc Jacobs as the Caterpillar. Karl Lagerfeld, who had wanted to be the White Rabbit, appeared as himself.

“I’ve always loved the way Annie brings a sense of narrative or storytelling to her fashion images,” Wintour wrote in an email. “She has an eye for character, conflict, romance, drama — you always feel something interesting is happening, or about to happen, or has just happened.”

In another fashion essay Leibovitz offers a hilarious parody of famous couture shoots of the past. In 1963, decades before Photoshop, Melvin Sokolsky took models out of the studio and shot them in a plexiglass bubble over different parts of Paris. Leibovitz placed Ben Stiller, reprising his “Zoolander” role, inside a duplicate bubble and dangled it from a crane over the Seine. Karen Mulligan, Leibovitz’s longtime studio manager, recalled having to reassure Stiller’s worried publicist that if he fell in the river, scuba divers were on standby.

A passionate researcher who loves history, Leibovitz is drawn to the narrative essays because they give her something to focus on besides clothes. In 2007, she traveled to Spain for a story based loosely on Hemingway’s “The Sun Also Rises.” Leibovitz had planned to shoot Penélope Cruz and Cayetano Rivera Ordóñez, the great-grandson of the famous matador who’d inspired the character of the bullfighter in the Hemingway novel.

“The day before the shoot we heard that Cayetano had been gored by a bull and was heading to the hospital,” Mulligan recalled. “Then he suddenly showed up. He’d bandaged his own leg. We had to get him into those tight matador pants and blood kept seeping through.”

Like Ordóñez, Leibovitz seems to thrive on stress. “She tortures herself and everybody else,” Coddington said. “But she’s unique, and I admire the effort she puts into each picture.” Others who’ve worked with her say that her relentless perfectionism can lead to angry outbursts, but agree that she’s less reactive now.

“I was ruthless in getting the photograph,” Leibovitz admitted. “I haven’t had the best behavior.”

“Working with Annie isn’t for the faint of heart,” said Mary Howard, her set designer of 30 years, adding, “Annie never wants to have regrets.”

She also doesn’t want to lose control over an interview. We sat opposite each other at a long table that was piled with research material — for me and on me. The latter was encased in see-through plastic and, according to Leibovitz, contained an email in which an unnamed person had written “some not very nice things.” I was tempted to ask, “Like what?” and then found myself glancing over to see if I could read it.

Leibovitz kept her notes on her left. I kept my notes on my right. We were like two lawyers squaring off before a jury composed of giant digital celebrities surrounding us in the gallery. “I don’t know if I have the ability to talk about the work while it’s flashing like this,” she said.

But talk she did — right through many of my questions. It was the first interview she’d done about the book and admitted she was nervous.

Instead she discussed all the great work being done in photojournalism, and how she doesn’t understand why every form of photography isn’t embraced. “Isn’t it?” I asked. She replied, “Well, if something’s not real enough….” Earlier when I’d asked her to define the meaning of the word “wonderland,” she said, “It’s the opposite of real — unreal.” As in fashion.

“Maybe it’s the friction that makes the work so good,” I suggested.

She paused. “Possibly.”

Leibovitz was more comfortable discussing the book’s portraits. In 2007, she received the first of three commissions from the royal household to photograph Queen Elizabeth II, who was annoyed that she’d had to wear the full regalia of the ancient Order of the Garter.

Leibovitz thought the queen’s tiara didn’t look right with the ornate robe, and in a BBC documentary, she’s heard saying, “Could we try without the crown? It will look better, less dressy.” The queen says, “Less dressy? What do you think this is?” But she ultimately removed the tiara.

The pictures of Caitlyn Jenner for Vanity Fair represent fashion at its most transformative. The former Olympic decathlon gold medalist sported a number of outfits, including a gold corset and a black Zac Posen dress. “We weren’t trying to do journalism,” she explained. “It was a construction, an acquired look. We were there to support her as she became a woman.”

When working for VogueLeibovitz has to remind herself that even portraits need a fashion element. “I try to downplay it as much as I can,” she explained. “I’m totally on the subject’s side. Sometimes Vogue will help with the clothing, but Michelle Obama was adamant about wearing her own. ”

When Leibovitz went to photograph Senator Tammy Duckworth, the senator had already selected her outfit: a St. John Knits suit that she’d purchased on eBay. “She explained that she got all her suits off eBay,” Leibovitz said. “I told her, “C’mon, let’s do it. I love that I get to have those little moments.”

Leibovitz had trouble finding the perfect ending for the book, finally selecting a photograph from Alexander McQueen’s last collection in 2010. The brilliant 40-year-old designer committed suicide that year on the first day of New York Fashion Week. “McQueen’s collection had been shipped to New York for Grace and me to shoot,” she recalled. “We took it into a large building in Brooklyn, and as we lifted the pieces out, we thought, Let’s leave them in the shipping boxes.”

Throughout the day, as Coddington and Leibovitz worked in silence, the light moved slowly across the room. Finally, it cast a beatific glow on the model standing in the wooden crate. Dressed in a coat tailored from lacquered gold feathers, she’s like a Renaissance archangel fearsome in her gilded glory.

Leibovitz, the un-fashion photographer, captured the perfect fashion moment.

www.nytimes.com

Newsletter of last week

The USD 70 Billion Prize in Personalised Offers – What’s next for video shopping? – 3-D Printed Houses are sprouting near Austin as Demand for Homes Grows – Entrepreneurship zeitgeist 2030 https://textile-future.com/archives/79376

The highlights of last week’s NEWS, for your convenience, just click on the feature to read.

Acquisition

Lonza to acquire Exosomics Service Unit to Expand Exosomes Service Offering https://textile-future.com/archives/79474

Artificial Intelligence

How to use AI to manage inventory in a time of stock shortages https://textile-future.com/archives/79717

Association

Weave a Legacy with AATCC Foundation https://textile-future.com/archives/79432    

Blockchain-enabled digital platform aims to improve labour practices https://textile-future.com/archives/79457

Authentication

Tech Companies ush Users to adopt Two-Factor Authentication https://textile-future.com/archives/79535

Awards

AATCC Announces Chapin Award Winner https://textile-future.com/archives/79649

Built

Opportunities for sustainability in the built environment https://textile-future.com/archives/79713                                                                                                                                Climate

Europe Fears That Rising Cost of Climate Action Is Stirring Anger https://textile-future.com/archives/79524

Companies

Suominen Corporation’s Interim Report for January 1–September 30, 2021: Q3 volumes low as expected, recovery already ongoing  https://textile-future.com/archives/79424

Breaking News: Oerlikon: Strong Orders Performance and Continued Margin Expansion –  Global Supply Chains Remain Constrained https://textile-future.com/archives/79502    

Lenzing – Earnings more than doubled in first nine months of 2021 https://textile-future.com/archives/79517

Swiss Autoneum presents medium-term financial targets at media and financial analysts brunch https://textile-future.com/archives/79577

Commercial Traffic

Swiss study  on commercial traffic in urban areas https://textile-future.com/archives/79471

Contest

New Zealand Held a Bird Contest. A Bat Won https://textile-future.com/archives/79670

Cotton

ICAC: Cotton Production Is Poised for Full Recovery with a 6 % Increase expected for 2021/22 https://textile-future.com/archives/79441

Cyber Security

Second Swiss NCSC semi-annual report focuses on vulnerabilities https://textile-future.com/archives/79463

Data

Swiss retail trade turnover rose in September https://textile-future.com/archives/79490

Exports of intermediate goods gain momentum in Q2 with 47 % year-on-year increase https://textile-future.com/archives/79540

Swiss Consumer sentiment: confidence despite price increases https://textile-future.com/archives/79582

The McKinsey Week in Charts https://textile-future.com/archives/79740

3D Printing

Swiss Empa: 3D Printing Photo Report – From titanium powder to a hip socket https://textile-future.com/archives/79595 

Education

Regional disparities in transition from education to work https://textile-future.com/archives/79626

Energy

Energy price surge underlines need to accelerate clean energy transitions rather than subsidise fossil fuels – OECD & IEA https://textile-future.com/archives/79480

Events

IFFT/Interior Lifestyle Living closed its doors after three successful days of business https://textile-future.com/archives/79591

Finance

Finland’s Aiven raises USD 60 million at USD 2 billion in valuation https://textile-future.com/archives/79572

France

Peer review report on France now online https://textile-future.com/archives/79637

Heating

8 % of EU population unable to keep home adequately warm https://textile-future.com/archives/79685

Indictment

The Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland (OAG) has filed an indictment against the former President of FIFA, Joseph Blatter, and against the former President of UEFA, Michel Platini. Both are accused of unlawfully arranging a payment of CHF 2 million from the FIFA to Michel Platini https://textile-future.com/archives/79493

Innovation

Innosuisse opens consultation on the complete revision of the Funding Ordinance https://textile-future.com/archives/79429

US Polo Association partners with 4ocean to work for ocean-positive sustainability https://textile-future.com/archives/79447

Intellectual Property

Declaration made under Article 8(7)(a) of the Madrid Protocol:  United Arab Emirates  https://textile-future.com/archives/79682

Odour Resistance

Polartec announces Switch to Peppermint for Metal-Free Odour Resistance https://textile-future.com/archives/79693

Pandemic

The human placenta, a target of SARS-CoV-2 https://textile-future.com/archives/79676

In 2019, self-employed physicians’ in Switzerland median earned income was CHF 162000 https://textile-future.com/archives/79709

Personalities

Personnel Changes at BASF https://textile-future.com/archives/79413

Swiss Zehnder strengthens Board of Directors with digitisation expert https://textile-future.com/archives/79642

New Products

New Swiss HeiQ AeoniQ yarn is set to transform the apparel industry https://textile-future.com/archives/79409  

Students of Finland’s Aalto University created a Jacket with Built-In Solar Panels https://textile-future.com/archives/79559

PICANOL launches new CONNECT Generation AIRJET and Rapier Weaving Machines https://textile-future.com/archives/79600

Warp knitted solutions with great leverage https://textile-future.com/archives/79657

Sustainability

Very drives sustainable denim progress with Jeanologia partnership https://textile-future.com/archives/79696

Pangaia partners with Unspun to launch hemp denim collection https://textile-future.com/archives/79705  

Switzerland  

Swiss National Conference on Violence: Better protection for victims https://textile-future.com/archives/79477

Trade

CSD meeting: EU-Colombia/Ecuador/Peru ex-post evaluation (final report) update https://textile-future.com/archives/79690

Webinars

Launch of webinar series on copyright infrastructure: First webinar: “A European Perspective on Copyright Infrastructure” (Nov. 17, 2021) https://textile-future.com/archives/79467

Groz-Beckert: Seminars in November – Needles for sewing leather and know-how protection with the customer product https://textile-future.com/archives/79614

WTO

WTO issues information briefs on trade, climate, related issues with COP26 talks underway https://textile-future.com/archives/79532

WTO agriculture negotiations at “critical juncture”, Chair tells delegation heads https://textile-future.com/archives/79725