In the second quarter of 2021, the job vacancy rate was 2.3 % in the Euro Area, up from 2.1 % in the previous quarter and 1.6 % in the second quarter of 2020, according to figures published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. The job vacancy rate in the EU was 2.2 % in the second quarter of 2021, up from 2.0 % in the previous quarter and 1.6 % in the second quarter of 2020.
In the second quarter of 2021, the job vacancy rate was 2.3% in the Euro Area, up from 2.1 % in the previous quarter and 1.6 % in the second quarter of 2020, according to figures published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. The job vacancy rate in the EU was 2.2 % in the second quarter of 2021, up from 2.0 % in the previous quarter and 1.6 % in the second quarter of 2020.
Among the Member States for which comparable data are available (see country notes), the highest job vacancy rates in the second quarter of 2021 were recorded in Czechia (4.9 %), Belgium (4.2 %) and the Netherlands (3.8 %). In contrast, the lowest rates were observed in Greece (0.3 % in the first quarter of 2021) as well as Bulgaria, Spain and Romania (all 0.8 %).
Compared with the same quarter of the previous year, the job vacancy rate increased in twenty-three Member States and fell in two. Data were not available for Greece and Ireland (second quarter of 2021). Decreases were recorded in Czechia (-0.5 pp) and Bulgaria (-0.1 pp). The largest increases were observed in Cyprus (+1.8 pp), Denmark (+1.6 pp) and the Netherlands (+1.4 pp).
The euro area (EA19) includes Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and Finland.
The European Union (EU27) includes Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland and Sweden.
Methods and definitions
The job vacancy rate (JVR) measures the proportion of total posts that are vacant, expressed as a percentage: JVR = (number of job vacancies) / (number of occupied posts + number of job vacancies).
A job vacancy is defined as a paid post (newly created, unoccupied or about to become vacant) for which the employer is taking active steps to find a suitable candidate from outside the enterprise concerned and is prepared to take more steps and which the employer intends to fill either immediately or in the near future. Under this definition, a job vacancy should be open to candidates from outside an enterprise. However, this does not exclude the possibility of the employer recruiting an internal candidate for the post. A vacant post that is open only to internal candidates should not be treated as a job vacancy. An occupied post is a paid post within an organisation to which an employee has been assigned.
Job vacancy rates cover NACE Rev. 2 sections B to S. This aggregate is referred to as “Whole economy” for the sake of simplification, even if agriculture, activities of households as employers and activities of extraterritorial organisations are excluded. NACE Rev. 2 sections B to S include the industry (B to E), construction (F) and services (G to N) sectors together with (mainly) non-market services (O to S).
The job vacancy rates for the EU and euro area aggregates are based on Member States data, including estimates for recent periods when values are not yet available. If national data are only available for a sub-population, for example excluding smaller units or some activities, this sub-population is used in the computation of the job vacancy rate for the aggregates.
Denmark, France and Italy: data are not strictly comparable. In Denmark, only units within the business economy (NACE Rev 2 sections B to N) are surveyed. In France, only business units with 10 employees or more are surveyed. Moreover, in the case of public administration, education and human health (NACE Rev. 2 sections O, P and Q), public institutions are not covered in France and Italy.