First estimates of European purchasing power parities for 2020

Actual individual consumption (AIC) is a measure of material welfare of households. In 2020, AIC per capita expressed in purchasing power standards (PPS) varied from 61 % to 131 % of the EU average across the 27 Member States.

This information on actual individual consumption comes from preliminary estimates on purchasing power parities for 2020 published by Eurostat today. The article presents some of the findings from the more detailed Statistics Explained article.

In 2020, nine Member States recorded AIC per capita above the EU average. The highest level in the EU was recorded in Luxembourg, 31 % above the EU average, followed by Germany (23 % above) and Denmark (21 % above). The Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Belgium, Sweden and France recorded levels between 5 % and 20 % above the EU average.

In thirteen Member States AIC per capita was between the EU average and 25% below. In Cyprus, Italy, Lithuania and Ireland the levels were 10 % or less below the EU average, while Spain, Czechia, Portugal, Malta, Poland and Slovenia were between 11 % and 20% below. Romania, Estonia and Greece were between 21 % and 25 % below the EU average.

Five Member States recorded AIC per capita 25 % or more below the EU average. Slovakia, Latvia, Hungary and Croatia were between 25 % and 35 % below, while Bulgaria had AIC per capita 39 % below the EU average.

GDP per capita ranged from 55 % of EU average in Bulgaria to 266 % in Luxembourg

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, a measure of economic activity, also shows substantial differences between the EU Member States.

In 2020, GDP per capita expressed in PPS ranged between 55% of the EU average in Bulgaria and 266% in Luxembourg. Ten Member States recorded a level of GDP per capita above the EU average in 2020.

For more information:

  • First estimates for 2020 presented in this news article are based on GDP and population data for 2020, extracted on 4 June 2021, and the most recent PPPs available. Revised estimates will be published in December 2021.
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the price collection for purchasing power parities (PPPs) during 2020 and the estimation of 2020 expenditures used in the calculation of the first estimates of 2020 PPPs. More information is available here.
  • Luxembourg: The high GDP per capita in Luxembourg is partly due to the country’s large share of cross-border workers in total employment. While contributing to GDP, these workers are not taken into consideration as part of the resident population which is used to calculate GDP per capita.
  • Eurostat Statistics Explained article on consumption and GDP per capita
  • Eurostat website section dedicated to purchasing power parities
  • Eurostat database on purchasing power parities
  • Eurostat metadata on purchasing power parities