Governments can do more to preserve material resources and cut waste, says OECD
Advanced economies have reduced their consumption of raw materials and improved waste management, but more should be done to design and produce goods in a way that uses fewer natural resources and produces less waste, according to a new OECD report
Resource consumption by Group of Seven countries has flattened out since 1980, despite economic growth, but their per capita consumption is still around 60% above the world average. Soaring demand from developing and emerging countries, and rapid population growth, means global resource consumption could double by 2050, putting serious pressure on the environment.
Policy Guidance on Resource Efficiency, presented today to G7 Environment Ministers in Toyama, Japan, calls on governments to apply resource-efficiency policies to the entire life cycle of products and to align them with existing policies in areas like innovation, investment and trade. More harmonisation of environmental labelling and information could also raise standards in resource efficiency, it says.
“Our objective has to be achieving a circular economy where we maintain the value of products and materials for as long as possible and we minimise waste generation. The challenge is to create more value from fewer natural resources,” said OECD Deputy Secretary-General Rintaro Tamaki. “This is foremost a matter of national policy decisions, but our report also highlights the value of international co-operation in this area.”
The OECD report was released alongside a study by the International Resource Panel, a scientific body hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme, called Resource Efficiency: Potential and Economic Implications, which finds that resource efficiency policies could significantly reduce the projected rise in material consumption by 2050 and foster economic growth and employment. The two reports respond to a G7 request in 2015 for policy guidance on resource efficiency.
The OECD report finds that measures have been applied more to the downstream than the upstream part of products’ lifecycles. For example, at the downstream end, higher landfill taxes have been effective at diverting waste into recycling and energy recovery, but too few incentives are in place to encourage greener product designs or more environmentally friendly consumer behaviour. It offers advice on extending policies to cover entire product lifecycles.
Other recommendations in the OECD report include:
• Strengthen and expand Extended Producer Responsibility schemes (already used by a majority of OECD countries in areas like electronic equipment, packaging and tyres) whereby manufacturers take responsibility for collecting and treating end-of-life products.
• Better integrate resource efficiency considerations into public procurement programmes.
• Encourage partnerships among businesses working along value chains so that, for example, one company’s waste can become another’s material input.
• Improve data collection and analysis so policies can be evaluated and improved.
The Ocean Economy in 2030
This report explores the growth prospects for the ocean economy, its capacity for future employment creation and innovation, and its role in addressing global challenges. Special attention is devoted to the emerging ocean-based industries in light of their high growth and innovation potential, and contribution to addressing challenges such as energy security, environment, climate change and food security
The report examines the risks and uncertainties surrounding the future development of ocean industries, the innovations required in science and technology to support their progress, their potential contribution to green growth and some of the implications for ocean management. Finally, and looking across the future ocean economy as a whole, it explores possible avenues for action that could boost its long-term development prospects while managing the use of the ocean itself in responsible, sustainable ways.