A case study on Textile Effluent Treatment to manage ecological degradation

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Dr Subrata Das

TextileFuture is proud to present the latest case study on Textile Effluent Treatment by guest author Dr Subrata Das, Professor Department of Fashion Technology Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode District, Tamil Nadu 638401, India

A case study executed in Jeans Knit Private Limited (JKPL), Bangalore, India

Jeans Knit Pvt. Ltd. manufactures readymade garments. The company is based in Bengaluru, India. Jeans Knit Pvt. Ltd. operates as a subsidiary of Fibre and Fabrics International Pvt Ltd,. It has state-of-the-art machineries with an effluent treatment plant operate in Italian technology both in machines and process know how.

Based on the working experience, the author has prepared the ETP flow chart which is followed in JKPL and shown as schematic diagram in Figure 1.

Primary Treatment:

Wastewater from different processes in a laundry was passed through Screen machine. Homogenized effluent was then sent to settler where sedimentation process was carried out with the dosing poly electrolyte from specially designed automated dosing system where settleable and suspended solids were sedimented in the form of sludge which is collected in sludge tank.

Screening: Effluent from laundry outlet was passed to screening which comprises 1-2 mm mesh. In this process, solid objects such as stones, threads and floating substances were separated out..

Equalization:  Screened effluent was then collected in collection tank. and equalization process was carried out by mixer’s installed in the system. Homogenized effluent was then to passed onto settler.

Sedimentation: Sedimentation was carried out by settlers by adding Poly electrolyte dosing through automated PLC controlled chemical dosing system. The resulting sludge settled in the bottom of the vessel which was transferred to sludge tank for sludge treatment and disposal.

Secondary Treatment:

Aeration and biological treatment are the two important stages in secondary treatment. Oxygen is required for effluent to increase dissolved oxygen which helps biological (biomass) growth and biodegradation of organic pollutants. Major reduction of BOD and COD is carried out in Secondary treatment.

Aeration Tank: Effluent from settler was aerated in aeration tank which was carried out by sucking atmospheric air with special centrifugal pump along effluent. The effluent along with air was re-circulated in the system to achieve maximum aeration.

Bio-tower: Biological growth and biodegradation was carried out in bio tower.  Media present in the bio-tower helps microorganisms to grow which will be converted to biomass by consuming organic and inorganic materials available in the effluent. .Breakdown of complex material in this process lead to reduction in BOD and COD.

Tertiary  Treatment

The main objective of tertiary to increase the quality of the effluent by various advanced systems and equipments. The final output was colorless, odorless  microbes free effluent with reduced hardness TDS, BOD and COD.

DAF (Diffused Air Filtration):  Diffused air filtration is the advanced system which uses minimal chemical dosing which leads to better treatment of effluent. Diffused air was circulated in the equipment with minimal dosage of Polymer,PAC (Poly aluminium chloride) and Sodium hydroxide leads to flocculation where sludge was separated at the top of equipment. The sludge separated in the system transferred to sludge tank for further treatment disposal.

Sand and carbon filter:  Outlet from DAF which consist of suspended solids and odour. Sand filter comprising mixed grade media helps to reduce suspended particles and carbon filter comprising activated carbon reduces and removes color and odour.

Reverse osmosis (RO): This is a water purification technology that uses a semi-permeable membrane to remove larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure. Treated water contains suspended particles (<200 µ) which will filtered using filter bags ( 5 µ)and Filter cartridge ( 5 µ). Filtration was carried either by two stage array of membranes or three stage array of membrane..RO filtration leads to enormous decrease in TDS and hardness and removal of suspended particle.


The quality of life depends on the ability to manage available water in the greater interest of the people. Water depletion of good quality water and environmental pollution has given tremendous importance to the water management. Joints efforts are needed by water technologists and textile industry experts to reduce water consumption in the industry. While the user industries should try to optimize water consumption, the water technologists should adopt an integrated approach to treat and recycle water in the industry.

Our motto is to save living species and its surrounding environment. Thus, we must stop using chemicals and dyes, which produce harmful effect to the biotic and abiotic factors in our eco-systems. Reduction of waste at the source is the preferred strategy instead of the traditional method of “end of pipe waste treatment”. Apart from problematic chemicals and dyes, the main pollutant is, of course, water. So, the new technologies, which aim to reduce or eliminate water, are to be conceived.

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