Across the EU, there are significant differences in terms of the sector that holds general government gross debt. Among the EU countries for which data are available, the share of general government debt held by the (resident) financial corporations sector at the end of 2022 was highest in Denmark (75 %), followed by Sweden (74 %), Croatia (67 %), Italy (64 %), Czechia (63 %) and Malta (60 %).
In contrast, the largest proportion of debt held by non-residents (rest of the world sector) was recorded in Cyprus (93 Dwe%), ahead of Estonia (74 %), Latvia (64 %), Austria and Lithuania (both 61 %).
Generally, across the EU, less than 10% of debt was held by the resident non-financial sectors (non-financial corporations, households and non-profit institutions serving households), with the noticeable exceptions of Hungary and Germany (both 22 %), Malta (18 %), Portugal (14 %), Ireland and Sweden (both 11 %).
Euro Area countries’ central government debt mostly denominated in domestic currency gross debt at face value was denominated in national currency.