117 million in the EU worked in science & technology


In 2021, human resources in science and technology (HRST) in the EU amounted to 117.2 million people; among these, there were 74.0 million persons employed in science and technology , 93.1 million who had an educational background in science and technology, and 49.8 million who met both criteria (otherwise referred to as HRST core).
The highest counts of HRST were recorded in some of the most populous regions of the EU in 2021: Ile-de-France (4.7 million HRST) and Rhône-Alpes (2.1 million) in France; Comunidad de Madrid and Cataluña (both 2.3 million) and Andalucía (2.0 million) in Spain; and Lombardia in Italy (2.0 million).

There were 25 regions where more than 980000 persons worked as HRST. Apart from the regions mentioned above, the remainder of this group were mainly located in Germany and France, although it also included several regions in other Member States, including four other capital regions.


Would you like to know more about research and development statistics in the EU?

You can read more in the dedicated section of the Regions in Europe – 2022 interactive edition and in the Eurostat regional yearbook – 2022 edition, also available as a set of Statistics Explained articles. The corresponding maps in the Statistical Atlas provide a full-screen interactive map.

For more information:

Methodological notes:

  • Human resources in science and technology (HRST) are defined as persons who fulfil one or other (or both) of the following two criteria: 1. Have successfully completed tertiary education in a science and technology field of study; 2. Are employed in a science and technology occupation where the above qualifications are normally required (defined here as those who work as professionals, technicians and associate professionals – as defined by the international standard classification of occupations (ISCO) major groups 2 and 3).
  • In this article, the regional data are presented at NUTS 2 level.